„Mă simt bine… vreau sânge!” – Halloween „ca şi cum”


„Mă simt bine… vreau sânge!” – exclamă un adolescent costumat în vampir la o petrecere de Halloween la Cluj…

Nişte copii şi-au întrebat părinţii dacă îi lasă la petrecerea de Halloween organizată la şcoală. În loc să le spună „da” sau „nu”, părinţii le-au explicat copiilor ce înseamnă această sărbătoare. Când s-a făcut lista cu cei care urmau să participe, respectivii elevi au refuzat… A fost alegerea lor.

În spaţiul românesc, Halloween-ul, importat recent din geografia festivă americană, e prilej de comercializare a chinezăriilor de tot felul (de la dovleci, lumânări şi scheleţi la diverse costume), e încă un divertisment, o ocazie de petrecere, mâncare şi băutură (nici vorbă de „candidele” candies), de chef, în care se reproduc, de cele mai multe ori fără discernământ, practicile corespondente sărbătorii.

Două aspecte ni se par importante vizavi de această sărbătoare:

1. În primul rând, circulaţia sărbătorilor în alte arii geografice presupune o resemantizare a lor.

Originea sărbătorii Halloween trebuie căutată în mitologia celtică, respectiv în sărbătoarea Anului Nou (noaptea dinspre 31 octombrie spre 1 noiembrie), care se numea Samhain. Pentru că celţii credeau că divinităţile lor locuiesc în morminte, că sunt fiinţe supraomeneşti, nu supranaturale (H. Hubert), cu ocazia sărbătorilor, aceste divinităţi erau supuse unor rituri de „întinerire”. După strângerea recoltelor, spiritele rele veneau să-i tulbure pe cei vii. Oamenii aprindeau focuri pe dealuri, lumini în case, pentru a îndepărta aceste spirite rele.

O resemantizare a sărbătorii are loc după cucerirea romană (prin sec. 1 d.H.), adăugându-se conţinuturile sărbătorii morţilor – Feralia şi ale zeiţei Pomona – zeiţa fructelor şi livezilor (ne putem gândi în acest context la românescul pomană). Alte resemantizări au loc mai târziu (Papa Bonifaciu al IV-lea stabileşte o Zi a Tuturor Sfinţilor – iniţial sărbătorită pe 13 Mai, dar mutată apoi pe 1 Noiembrie – francezii au la Toussaint, românii au Ziua Morţilor).

Sărbătoarea a fost apoi „exportată” peste ocean, în sec. 19, de irlandezii care s-au stabilit pe noul continent. Ea a căpătat un aspect popular şi comercial, iar practicile care s-au încetăţenit cu această ocazie sunt cele pe care le ştim şi azi: decuparea dovlecilor, aprinderea lumânărilor în interiorul lor, purtarea măştilor, cu precădere a celor reprezentând fantome, vampiri, demoni, vrăjitoare şi alte făpturi ale nopţii, colindatul din casă în casă – trick-or-treating etc.

Readucerea ei în spaţiul european, în spaţiul românesc, are loc sub formă de „divertisment”, resemantizarea având loc în sensul degradării sărbătorii.

2. În al doilea rând, necunoaşterea semnificaţiei sărbătorii, face ca ea să fie sub semnul lui ca şi cum. Vampirul mascat nu cunoaşte motivaţia deghizării sale. Gestul de punere a măştii e pentru el un prilej de a face haz, un act gregar.

Un musulman care s-a naturalizat în Canada – fără a cunoaşte, precum vampirul de mai sus, semnificaţia Crăciunului – şi-a decorat sufrageria cu un imens brad de Crăciun, aşa, ca la case mari. Omul a adormit bine, iar când s-a trezit noaptea să meargă la baie, a văzut profilul bradului din sufragerie şi s-a speriat de moarte. Bondoc cum era, s-a rostogolit pe duşumea ca o minge. El uitase, bineînţeles, că împodobise brad de Crăciun… Ce semnificaţie avea pentru el sărbătoarea? Dincolo de tradiţionalul brad, oare auzise măcar de naşterea Mântuitorului?

La noi, Halloween-ul e doar ocazie de petrecere şi chef, cum spuneam, de comercializare a tuturor chinezăriilor, de divertisment. Necunoaşterea semnificaţiei sărbătorii, duce la o participare „ca şi cum”, iar masca nu mai are funcţie de protejare a identităţii celui care o poartă. Gestul de punere a măştii e superfluu, afişare vanitoasă, act de snobism sau… moft.

Anunțuri

Despre A.Dama

https://adamaica.wordpress.com
Acest articol a fost publicat în Demenţial. Pune un semn de carte cu legătura permanentă.

11 răspunsuri la „Mă simt bine… vreau sânge!” – Halloween „ca şi cum”

  1. CN Ille zice:

    Intre ceea ce Martirologiul Roman comemoreaza pe 1 noiembrie, respectiv „Solemnitas omnium sanctorum” si „Shamain” nu exista decat o legatura cel mult conjuncturala. Sarbatoarea bisericii Romei comemoreaza sfintirea unei capele adiacente bazilicii sf. Petru in cinstea tuturor Sfintilor de catre papa Grigorie al III-lea la inceputul sec. VIII. Deci sarbatoarea catolica apare la Roma, nu in Irlanda.

  2. CN Ille zice:

    La 13 mai se comemora sfintirea fostului pantheon in bazilica crestina, inchinata Sfintei Marii si tuturor mucenicilor (titulum Sanctae Mariae et omnium martyrum), de catre papa Bonifatie al IV-lea prin anii 609-610.

  3. A.Dama zice:

    Mulţumesc frumos, CN Ille!

    Eu am dat un link cu o pagină din Encyclopedia Britannica online, pe care am considerat-o credibilă, deşi folosesc în continuare cu rezerve informaţiile de pe net. Oricum, am fost într-o bibliotecă din Spania şi am răsfoit câteva albume de artă, urmărind acelaşi artist. Apăreau diferenţe semnificative la anii scrişi în dreptul aceleiaşi opere. Şi eram într-o bibliotecă universitară, şi cu tipăritura sub ochi…

    Precizarea făcută de Encyclopedia Britannica în legătură cu irlandezii era că ei au dus peste ocean sărbătoarea (sigur, alături de alţi imigranţi).

    În legătură cu transcrierea numelor papilor, ele sunt transcrise diferit în română. Am găsit şi Bonifaciu, şi Boniface, şi Bonifatie. Nu există o grafie unitară?

    Eu am încercat să arăt că sărbătoarea suportă modificări, se „aduce la zi”, se modifică şi la nivelul semnificaţiei. Iar în ce priveşte Halloween-ul de la noi, acesta e un moft…

    P.S. Aş dori să ştiu mai multe despre 13 mai, despre felul cum se sărbătorea. Ştiţi mai multe?

  4. Virginia Brasov zice:

    Iam not ortodox but I found this article very clear:

    ***Lest anyone think that the Orthodox Church endorses
    the „celebration” of Halloween, consider, please, the following
    homily from the web site of the Russian Orthodox Cathedral of St.
    John the Baptist (ROCOR) in Washington, DC:

    __________________________

    http://www.stjohndc.org/russian/Homilies/e_HOMHALWN.HTM

    Concerning Halloween

    … Because most of us are either newly Orthodox or newly aware of
    our Orthodoxy, we must carefully examine every aspect of our
    involvement in the world – its activities, festivals, associations,
    and societies – to be certain whether or not these involvements are
    compatible with our Holy Orthodox Faith. This difficult task can
    lead to some pain when we realize that we cannot take part in some
    popular organizations and activities.

    Most of our schools, local community organizations, and
    entertainments in television, radio and the press will share in and
    capitalize upon the festival of Halloween. But Orthodox Christians
    cannot participate in this event at any level. The simple issue –
    Fidelity to God and the Holy Orthodox Christian Faith. Halloween has
    its roots in paganism, and it continues as a form of idolatry to
    worship Satan, the angel of death. As we know, the very foundation
    of our Holy Church is build upon the blood of martyrs who refused
    despite painful penalties to worship, venerate, or pay obeisance in
    any way to the idols who are Satan’s angels. Because of the
    faithfulness, obedience, and self-sacrifice of the Holy Martyrs, God
    poured out abundant Grace upon His Holy Church, whose numbers
    increased daily. The persecution did not stem the spread of faith.
    Differing from the world’s values, humble faithfulness and obedience
    to God were the very strength of their life in Christ, Who gave them
    true spiritual peace, love and joy, and participation in the
    miraculous workings of His Holy Spirit. Therefore, the Holy Church
    calls us to faithfulness by our turning away from falsehood toward
    Truth and eternal life.

    We can stay away from the pagan festival of Halloween if we
    understand the spiritual danger and history of this anti-Christian
    feast.

    The feast of Halloween began in pre-Christian times among the Celtic
    peoples who lived more than 2,000 years ago in what is no United
    Kingdom, Ireland, and northern France. These pagan peoples believed
    that physical life was born from death. Therefore, they celebrated
    the beginning of the „new year” in the fall (on the eve of October
    31 and into the day of November 1), when, as they believed, the
    season of cold, darkness, decay and death began. The Celts believed
    that a certain deity, whom they called Samhain, was the lord of
    death. To him they gave honor at their New Year’s festival.

    From an Orthodox Christian point of view, many diabolical beliefs
    and practices were associated with this feast, which have endured to
    this current time. On the eve of the New Year’s festival, the
    Druids, who were the priests of the Celtic cult, instructed their
    people to extinguish all hearth fires and lights. On the evening of
    the festival they ignited a huge bonfire built from oak branches,
    which they believed to be sacred. Upon this fire, they offered burnt
    sacrifices of crops, animals, and even human beings to appease and
    cajole Samhain, the lord of death. They also believed that Samhain,
    being pleased by their faithful offerings, allowed the souls of the
    dead to return to homes for a festal visit on this day. This belief
    led to the ritual practice of wandering about in the dark dressed in
    costumes indicating ghosts, witches, hobgoblins, fairies and demons.
    The living entered into fellowship and communion with their dead by
    this ritual act of imitation, through costume and the wandering
    about in the darkness, even as the souls of the dead were believed
    to wander.

    The dialogue of „trick-or-treat” is integral to Halloween beliefs
    and practices. The souls of the dead had – by Celtic tradition –
    entered into the world of darkness, decay, and death, and made total
    communion with and submission to Samhain, the lord of death. They
    bore the affliction of great hunger on their festal visit. This
    belief brought about the practice of begging as another Celtic
    ritual imitation of the activities of the souls of the dead on their
    festal visit. The implication was that any souls of the dead and
    their imitators who are not appeased with „treats”, i.e. offerings,
    will provoke the wrath of Samhain, whose angels and servants (the
    souls and human imitators) could retaliate through a system
    of „tricks” or curses.

    The Orthodox Christian must understand that taking part in these
    practices at any level is an idolatrous betrayal of our God and our
    Holy Faith. For if we imitate the dead by dressing up in or
    wandering about in the dark, or by begging with them, then we have
    willfully sought fellowship with the dead, whose Lord is not a
    Celtic Samhain, but is Satan the Evil One, who stands against God.
    Further, if we submit to the dialogue of „trick-or-treat,” our
    offering goes not to innocent children, but rather to Samhain, the
    Lord of Death whom they have come to serve as imitators of the dead,
    wandering in the darkness.

    We must stay away from other practices associated with Halloween,
    the eve of the Celtic New Year festival. The Druid priests used to
    instruct their faithful to extinguish their hearth fires and lights
    and to gather around the fire of sacrifice to make their offerings
    and to pay homage to the Lord of Death. This sacred fire was the
    fire of the new year, to be taken home to rekindle lights and hearth
    fires. The sacred New Year’s fire developed into the practice of the
    Jack-o’-lantern (in the U.S.A. a pumpkin, in older days other
    vegetables were used), which was carved in imitation of the dead and
    used to convey the new light and fire to the home, where the lantern
    was left burning throughout the night. Even the use and display of
    the Jack-o’-lantern honors the Samhain, the Celtic god of death.
    Orthodox Christians cannot share in this Celtic activity, but must
    counter the secular customs by instead burning candles to the
    Savior, the Most Holy Mother of God, and to all the Holy Saints.

    Divination was also part of this ancient Celtic festival. After the
    fire had died out the Druids examined the remains of the main
    sacrifices, hoping to foretell the coming years events. The
    Halloween festival was the proper night for sorcery, fortune
    telling, divination, games of chance, and Satan worship and
    witchcraft in the later Middle Ages.

    In the strictly Orthodox early Celtic Church, the holy Fathers tried
    to counteract this pagan new year festival that honored the Lord of
    Death, by establishing the Feast of All Saints on the same day. (It
    differs in the East, where the Feast of All Saints is celebrated on
    the Sunday following Pentecost). The custom of the Celtic Church was
    for the faithful Christians to attend a vigil service and a morning
    celebration of the Holy Eucharist. This custom created the term
    Halloween. The Old English of All Hallow e’en, i.e., the eve
    commemorating all those who were hallowed (sanctified) became
    Halloween.

    The remaining pagan and therefore anti-Christian people, whose
    paganism had become deeply intertwined with the Occult, Satanism and
    Magic, reacted to the Church’s attempt to supplant their festival by
    increased fervor on this evening. The early medieval Halloween
    became the supreme feast of the Occult, a night and day witchcraft,
    demonism, sorcery and Satanism of all kinds. Many practices involved
    desecration and mockery of Christian practices and beliefs. Costumes
    of skeletons developed as a mockery of the Church’s reverence for
    Holy Relics; Holy things were stolen, such as crosses and the
    Reserved Sacrament, and used perversely in sacrilegious ways. The
    practice of begging became a system of persecution to harass
    Christians who were, by their beliefs, unable to participate with
    offerings to those who served the Lord of Death. The Western
    Church’s attempt failed, to supplant this pagan festival with the
    Feast of All Saints.

    The ancient Slavic counterpart to Halloween in ancient Russia was
    Navy Dien’ (Old Slavonic for the dead „nav”), which was also called
    Radunitsa and celebrated in the spring. To supplant it, the Eastern
    Church attached this feast to Easter, for celebration on Tuesday of
    Saint Thomas’ Week (second week after Easter). The Church also
    changed the name of the feast into Radonitsa, from Russian „radost” –
    joy, of Easter and of the resurrection from the dead of the whole
    manhood of Jesus Christ. Gradually Radonitsa yielded to Easter’s
    greater importance and became less popular. And many dark practices
    from old Russian pagan feasts (Semik, Kupalo, Rusalia and some
    aspects of the Maslennitsa) still survived till the beginning of our
    century. Now they are gone, but the atheist authorities used to try
    to reanimate them. Another „harmless” feast – May 1, proclaimed „the
    international worker’s day” is a simple renaming the old satanic
    feast of Walpurgis Night (night of April 30 into the day of May 1),
    the yearly demonic Sabbath during which all participants united
    in „a fellowship of Satan”.

    Paganism, idolatry and Satan worship–How then did things so
    contradictory to the Holy Orthodox Faith gain acceptance among
    Christian people? The answers are spiritual apathy and listlessness,
    which are the spiritual roots of atheism and turning away from God.
    In society today, one is urged to disregard the spiritual roots and
    origins of secular practices when the outward practices or forms
    seem ordinary, entertaining, and harmless. The dogma of atheism
    underlies many of these practices and forms, denying the existence
    of both God and Satan. Practices and forms of obvious pagan and
    idolatrous origin are neither harmless nor of little consequence.
    The Holy Church stand against them because we are taught by Christ
    that God stands in judgment over everything we do and believe, and
    that our actions are either for God or against God. Therefore, the
    customs of Halloween are not innocent, but are demonic, precisely as
    their origins prove.

    There are evil spirits. Devils do exist. Christ came into the world
    so that, through death, He might destroy him that had the dominion
    of death, that is, the Devil (Hebrews 2:14). Christians must see
    that our greatest foe is the Evil One who inspires nations and
    individuals to sin, and who keeps them from coming to the truth.
    Until we know that Satan is our real enemy, we can make little
    spiritual progress. For our struggle is not against flesh and blood,
    but against principalities, against powers, against the world rulers
    of the darkness of this age, against the spiritual hosts of
    wickedness in the heavenly places (Ephesians 6:12).

    Today we witness a revival of satanist cults and special satanic
    ceremonies on Halloween night. Everywhere Satan reaches out to
    ensnare more innocent people with spiritualism, supernatural
    phenomena, seances, prophesies and all sorts of demonically inspired
    works.

    Divine Providence ensured that St. John of Kronstadt, that physician
    of our souls and bodies, should have his feast day on the very day
    of Halloween, a day the world dedicated to the destroyer, corrupter,
    and deceiver of humanity. God has provided us with this powerful
    counterpoise and weapon against the snares of Satan, and we should
    take full advantage of this gift, for truly God is wonderful in His
    Saints.

    Archpriest Victor Potapov

  5. A.Dama zice:

    Multumesc, Virginia! As fi preferat o parere personala.

    In orice caz, detasarea fata de sarbatoarea Halloween a fost explicita pentru cine a inteles. Pe langa ca s-a importat (efect de globalizare 😛 ), ea nici nu are substanta, e doar INCA un haz, un moft.

  6. ihtys zice:

    In filmul „Cry Wolf”, acesta sarbatoare a acoperit f bine posibilitatea unei crime.

    Eu n-am sarbatorit H, am parte de destula groaza zi de zi cand vad cine se ascunde in spatele mastilor.

  7. A.Dama zice:

    Ihtys, am vazut ca ai zis ca sarbatoresti zi de zi Halloween. Acum zambesc, citind explicatia. Chestiunea cu dansul mastilor cotidian e… trista, dar adevarata. In ce masura ne sustragem noi curentului?

  8. Pingback: (anti)Valentine’s Day şi “impotenţa festivă” « lumea adam(a)ică

  9. Pingback: Despre (im)Posibilitatea Crăciunului (2) « lumea adam(a)ică

  10. Pingback: Câteva (ne)mulţumiri de Halloween « lumea adam(a)ică

  11. Pingback: Rob sau Fiu? « lumea adam(a)ică

Lasă un răspuns

Completează mai jos detaliile tale sau dă clic pe un icon pentru a te autentifica:

Logo WordPress.com

Comentezi folosind contul tău WordPress.com. Dezautentificare / Schimbă )

Poză Twitter

Comentezi folosind contul tău Twitter. Dezautentificare / Schimbă )

Fotografie Facebook

Comentezi folosind contul tău Facebook. Dezautentificare / Schimbă )

Fotografie Google+

Comentezi folosind contul tău Google+. Dezautentificare / Schimbă )

Conectare la %s